What is a Rain Garden?
A rain garden is a shallow garden with enhanced soils and a rock reservoir designed to collect rainwater from roadways, parking lots or other hard surfaces. They can be planted with a combination of shrubs, grasses and flowers.
Rain gardens provide stormwater control at the source, or where the rain falls. Rain gardens are designed to mimic nature in an urban setting, increasing infiltration to native soils and removing pollutants prior to releasing surface runoff to the Thames River. Rain gardens can also provide an aesthetic landscape feature.
Why Rain Gardens?
- Limit the amount of water that enters the storm sewer
- Reduces the potential for flooding drainage problems and stream bank erosion by slowing the water down and reducing flow into the waterways
- Removes pollutants that run from yards, parking lots and roads straight into the waterways
- Restores and recharges groundwater
- Are low maintenance. They are planted with beautiful, hardy plants that require little to no watering
- Attracts birds, butterflies and beneficial insects, such as mosquito-consuming dragonflies
- Enhance the beauty of the surrounding neighbourhood
Consider building a Rain Garden at home.
A rain garden only requires four elements:
- A source of stormwater runoff, such as a downspout or sump pump discharge
- An absorbent soil mix with lots of compost
- Full or partial sun
- Native plants that are both water-tolerant and drought-tolerant. Properly constructed rain gardens are designed to allow overflow in a large rain event and hold standing water for no more than 48 hours
Compared to a similar sized patch of lawn, a rain garden allows for 30% more water to soak into the ground!
General Building Guide
Place the rain garden in full or partial sun at least 3m from the house to ensure water won’t seep into the ground around the home, but no more than 9m from the downspout.
Your rain garden should not be placed over a septic tank or where water pools in your yard – this is a slow infiltration spot.
Soil in the rain garden is a special soil mix that is a combination of compost and sand which allows the water to infiltrate quickly. There should be about 60cm thickness of rain garden soil added which leaves room for plants.
Create an inlet for water to travel into the rain garden; at the inlet into the garden add small stones to slow the water entering which helps reduce erosion.
Create an overflow; the overflow should be created on the downhill side of the garden; add small stones at the overflow as was done at the inlet.
Plant rain garden friendly plants; those that like water and to be dry.
Ensure plants are mulched with at least 5-10cm layer.
How large should your Rain Garden be?
Measure the footprint of your house (area of first floor); identify the percentage of water runoff that will feed into the garden from the nearest downspout (most houses have four downspouts, each collecting 25% of the runoff); multiply the footprint by percentage of roof runoff to determine roof drainage area; and divide roof drainage area value by six. This calculation sizes a garden to hold one 2.5cm of roof runoff in a garden that will be 15cm deep but dug to about 85cm to allow room for amended soil. A deeper rain garden can be smaller. Keep your soil type in mind when deciding on the size of your garden. A garden with clay soil absorbs water more slowly than one with sandy soil, and therefore should be larger. The garden should be level so that water is spread evenly across its length. Don't forget to call before you dig!
100m2 (area of home)*0.25=25m2
Based on a house that is 100m2 the rain garden should be 4.17m2